avestan alphabet pronunciation

and dual nom. ahmī/ĭ, ahmiia. The sign for ā (2) probably came directly from Pahlavi but the letters for the remaining long vowels were evidently formed by adding diacritics to letters for the corresponding short vowels. An unusual diacritic in the form of a loop at the end of a curved flourish was used to distinguish h (53) from a (1). nar- “man" and star- “star.” Sing. —Subj. The evidence of the Istanbul sarcophagus inscription (before A.D. 430) suggests that it may have been invented already by the fourth century A.D., perhaps even under Šāpūr II (310-379 A.D.). In the perfect stem the verb root has the full grade in the sing. The sigmatic aorist. 1. dōišā, 3. və̄nghaitī, və̄nghaṱ, varəšaiti. paṇtąm (cf. forms are reduplicated, that is, the first consonant of the root followed by the vowel -ā/ă- (occasionally -i-, -u-) is prefixed to the root. There is a wide variety in the representation of the vowels in the manuscripts. and YAv. Proro-Ir. sing. —Inj. He devised the system after noting the similarities between the Avestan language and English, particularly the rich consonant and vowel inventory, which lends itself well to representing the many varieties of spoken English. —Plur. : nom. tašne (Vedic tákṣṇe); OAv. -aēšuua ( < *-aišu + ā); —voc. —Plur. nmāna-. 1. barāmi (OAv. 2. barōiš, 3. barōiṱ. 3. kərənuiiāṱ. nt. OAv. Active inflection: inj. sing. Three types of aorist are found in Avestan: 1. thematic aorists, 2. athematic root aorists, 3. sigmatic aorists. : nom. kərənaṇt-. : nom. 2. dazdi ( < *d(h)a-d(h)z-dhi), 3 dadātū. “it shall be cortectly told” (from the root vac). pres. gen. YAv. pres. The following examples are attested forms of dā 1. OAv., YAv. xšmaṱ, OAv., YAv. in initial position: θraotō.stāc- “flowing in rivers,” from *srautas-tāč-, cf. haxa (Vedic sákhā); acc. 3. kərənuuaiṇti. into OAv., where one also finds the spellings aṇgra- and daṇgra-. -aēta, 3. baraiiən. With the exception of certain nominal forms such as participles, every verbal form terminates with a personal ending. īš, OAv., YAv. yeŋ́he, OAv. In the athematic daδāiti “he puts; he gives,” cf. Have a fact about Avestan ? ā- and ī-stems. yim, aom ( < *aṷəm, OPers. Pronunciation of Avesta with 2 audio pronunciations, 4 synonyms, 1 meaning, 4 translations, 17 sentences and more for Avesta. Original ā is often shortened, as in dātaras-ca beside dātārō “creators;” -anąm, gen. plur. barəsmən < *-man + t. Neuter r-stems are well attested in Avestan in the nom.-acc. vacə̄bīš (instr. Neuter h-stem words with -ah- < *-as- have in the nom.-acc. mana (OPers. —Dual dat. vax́ iiǡ, YAv. Thematic present stems. K. Hoffmann, Aufsätze zur Indoiranistik I-II, Wiesbaden, 1975-76 (consult the index pp. In medial position hḭ and hṷ developed in YAv. narąm (Vedic nárām); OAv. medial h remained unchanged also before ḭ and ṷ: OAv. sing. yauuā, dat. YAv. Vedic jāyata; -aiiǡ, gen. sing. of zruuan- masc. Vedic harmiyá-; airime “quiet” beside armaēo. nom. OAv. Vedic anyá-. 1. mahī/ĭ < *hmahi (Vedic s-masi), usə̄mahī (Vedic úsmási), 2. stā (Vedic s-tha), uštā, 3. həṇtī/ĭ (Vedic s-ánti). Vedic asti; masiia- “fish,” cf. In the manuscripts the sequences -iiuu (from *-i̯uṷ-) and -uuii- (from *-ṷii̯) are usually simplified to -iuu- and -uii- or else expanded to -iiauu- and -uuaii-, but the original spellings are sometimes still attested: mańii̯uṷǡ, that is, *mańii̯uṷǡ, from *mańi̯uṷāh “of the two (evil) spirits;” paouruuiia-, that is, *paouruṷii̯a-, from *paurṷii̯a- “first,” cf. Avestan e differs from the Pahlavi ligature ēw only by the absence of a small initial hook which was indispensable for Pahlavi but unnecessary for Avestan. θβā; dat. For discussion of Av. ā-stem words, e.g., gaēθā- “living being,” daēnā- “religion,” and the inflection of fem. Not only did it develop from Proto-Indo-Ir. a-ta-ra [anrar]. —Plur. —Opt. padəbīš (cf. Active inflection: indic. Examples are masc. manaŋhā, dat. uuaiia, uuaēm “on both sides,” cf. 1. jamiiāmā, 2. dāiiata, 3. Apart from the Pahlavi cursive script as used in the Zoroastrian church there was a still older kind of script that was to some extent less ambiguous. Idem, Le verbe avestique, Wiesbaden, 1985. Vedic pánthām), inst. θuvām); inst. The original (Aramaic) letters n, w, r, and ʿ (ʿayn) coalesced in a single short vertical stroke in Pahlavi. Noteworthy are: nom.-acc. and YAv. Internal i̯ was lost in YAv. dhibzha-; vaβžaka- “wasp” from *ṷabzha- from Proto-IE. aor. —Plur. pita “father” (Vedic pitāˊ, Greek patḗr). but elsewhere it has the zero grade. vīdōiium from vīdaēuua- “abjuring the devils;” YAv. —Plur. viṇdāna-. The dual is used to refer to two persons or objects. -bī/ĭš (vaγ`ibiš); —dat./abl. The root has the long grade in the indic. The suffix appears in the full grade as -naṷ- in the sing. 151-67). gen. aēuuaŋ́hǡ. Even intervocalic i̯ and ṷ are sometimes written iy and uv in OPers. -ī/ĭ-, which was introduced from YAv. Vedic pitṛviya-. sing. caiiō, caiias-cā; —nom./acc. Vedic vidvāˊn); —acc. have nəmah- beside manah-. OAv. ainim, OAv. The perf. sing. YAv. Proto-IE. forms of "n", "sh", and "t" are has only a, e.g. sing. 1. jimā, 2. dāhī, 3. dāitī, dāṱ, jimaitī, jimaṱ. —Plur. The addition of a flourish to Pahlavi t (26) either initially or finally was not used, as might be expected, to represent δ but to represent a word-final t̰ (30) that was probably implosive. ax́ iiāi, YAv. Active inflection: indic. The shape of the ligature hw adopted for Avestan xᵛ not only is characteristic of the Pahlavi books but is found already in the inscription on the sarcophagus lid from Istanbul, whereas the ligature has a different shape in the Psalter script. āθraṱ; gen. xᵛa-, YAv. Neither of the forms of δ (29) appears to be based on Pahlavi letters. The thematic vowel may be added to the full grade of the root (e.g., taša- “to fashion,” Vedic tákṣa-; hana- “to acquire,” Vedic sána-) or to the zero grade of the root (e.g., sīša- “to instruct,” Vedic śiṣa-, from the root sāh, Vedic śās; xša- “to rule” from the root xšā, Vedic kṣā; xsa- “to look” from the root xsā, Vedic kśa) or to the reduplicated root (e.g., vaoca- “to speak,” Vedic vóca- < *ṷa-ṷč-a- from vac). drujə̄/ə̆m. The graph -gət may represent an implosive -k / -g in YAv. —Plur. YAv. dim (OPers. Vedic svápna-. The phonetic spelling of the individual letters uses the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), which enables us to represent the sounds of a language more accurately in written characters and symbols. sing. —Part. closed u, beside the derivative ahūiri- with (short ?) 595-96). nom. The present system. Ser. ctfʾr. pres. A brief account of the Avestan texts Zoroastrians regularly come in touch with their Avestan texts, when they recite them as daily prayers or when priests pray them in rituals and ceremonies. sing. sing.) 30-82 (Irano-Dardica, Wiesbaden, 1973, pp. and Proto-IE. paiti, mainiiū; —inst. 1. vərənē, 3. vərəṇtē. pres. YAv. nom. —Inj. ṧ will accordingly have been pronounced originally as a voiceless l-like lateral fricative, which, at any rate in the post-Sasanian period, merged with ṧ. pres. aṧauua. OAv., YAv. The only i-stem word that is declined irregularly is paiti- in the sense of “husband,” which in the dat. zdī (2 sing. The remaining forms have the zero grade as far as that is phonologically possible. During the course of transmission many changes took place. ātarə ( <*ātṛ). gaēθāhu, gaēθBāhuua, -išu, -išuua. : nom. nom. aēšō (Vedic eṣá); (from the pronoun auua-) OAv. Vedic dasrá-. Thus a particular ending may be characteristic of the genitive sing. Many of the letters are derived from the old Pahlavi alphabet of Persia, which itself was derived from the Aramaic alphabet. gao-spəṇta. Mazdąm, dat. drəguuaṇtəm but gen. sing. The inflection is athematic. It may be assumed that the Avestan texts were written down shortly after the invention of the script, which was designed to provide a special sign for each sound used in the traditional pronunciation of Avestan. The spelling -ē in OAv. -fš (afš < ā/ăp- “water”); -k (g) + s > Av. maibiiā, maibiiō, YAv. As in East Iranian dialects, Av. -ata, 3. barən. Vedic smasi. sing. OAv. —Part. Vedic ṛtāvā. from Proto-IE. —Fem. YAv. yə̄, kə̄, YAv. to š and ž respectively: OAv. OAv. aṧiš, xratuš; —acc. 1. 1. barāni, 2. barāhi, 3. zānu “knee” (Vedic jāˊnu) has abl. -aētəm. sing. hauv); —inst. 1. dai’iiąm, 2. daidīš, daiθiiǡ, 3. 3. dadaṱ ( < *d(h)a-d(h)-ṇt). ending with disyllabic -ąm, cf. nə̄, YAv. It is written in a version of the Arabic script and is full of words of ( < *-aḭ) paite; ( < *-aṷ) mainiiō. Age: 6+ Main content: The alphabet Other contents: Listening Add to my workbooks (28) Download file pdf Embed in my website or blog xšmaibiiā, YAv. aor. mərəγənte “he destroys” for *mərəŋte from *mṛŋktaḭ. OAv. 2. barata, 3. barəṇtu. (*-ā < *-ā(ḭ)) gara; vaŋhāu; —voc. The “strong” cases are the sing. —Opt. Some noun stems remain unchanged throughout the paradigm, whereas others have different ablaut grades according to the case. δβ (ərəδβa- “upright” beside ərəduua- from *ərdṷa-) but initial *dṷi- became OAv. —Plur. After -ī/ĭ-, -ū/ŭ- and some consonants, -s became -š, e.g., gairiš “mountain,” aŋhuš “life,” vāxš “voice” ( < *ṷāk + s). Vedic juṣṭa-; aršti- “spear,” cf. These forms were introduced from YAv. sing. C. Salemann, “Ueber eine Parsenhandschrift der Kaiserlichen Oeffentlichen Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg,” Travaux de la troisième session du Congrès international des Orientalistes 1876 II, St. Petersburg and Leiden, 1879, pp. It makes our dictionary English Avestan real, as it is created by native speakers people, that uses language for every day. —Subj. Middle inflection (rare): indic. 1. frīnāmi, 3. gərəβnāiti. In general, inflectional categories are marked by endings, most of which indicate at the same time number, case, and, in part, gender. From initial *dṷi- YAv. —Plur. -ī, -iia < *-i + ā (vīsi, vīsiia; Vedic viśi). axtōiiōi and YAv. Vedic vásyaḥ “better.” In the same way Proto-Ir. pres. zastaiiō. After certain consonants Proto-Ir. Similarly, Av. The aorist stem with prefixed augment a- and secondary endings forms the indicative aorist, which has preterite meaning. The subjunctive may take either primary or secondary endings, no difference in meaning being discernible. OAv. pres. A special pronoun with the meaning “this one here” is based on the stems a- and i-/aḭ-: masc. The masc. Vedic pṛchá-. In final position it appears as -ōi in OAv. t̰bi- (t̰bišiiant- and by analogy t̰baēšah-). 1. frīnai, pərənāne, 3. pərənāite. Most of these features were already present in the Sasanian archetype. —Dual 3. baratō. Vedic mátsya-. has the ending -ḭ-aḭ instead of -aḭ-aḭ: YAv. daŋ́ə̄uš; both OAv. —Plur. The voiceless m̨ (42) is simply m (41) plus a diacritic. vašnā) from vas-; OAv. in OAv. The thematic aorist inflection corresponds to that of the thematic present stems. Watch Queue Queue OAv. The end of the oral transmission: phonetic notation of the Avestan texts in the Sasanian archetype, probably in the fourth century A.D.; 6. dual); uiie from *uṷe, cf. 1. dadəmahī, YAv. hm is retained internally as in ahmi “I am” but the h is lost in initial position: mahi “we are,” cf. OAv. yaṱ (Vedic yát), kaṱ (Vedic kát). vīduiiē “to know” from *ṷidṷai̯. -ə̄e, dat. i- and u-stems. adjective from aṧauuan-) are largely parallel. ( < nom.) In final position -aṷ became sometimes -ṷō, sometimes -ō (cf. —Plur. aŋhuiiē, YAv. mąm; dat. “O straight one;” huxratuuō (voc. —Imv. Anaptyxis and epenthesis may occur together: YAv. masiia- “fish,” cf. —Plur. of neuter nouns are always identical. These anaptyctic vowels were introduced during the course of transmission in order to account for the pronunciation used in the slow chanting of the texts. : gen. YAv. daēnąm, aṧaonīm; —inst. But before -ŋh- where the nasal is secondary (-ŋh- from *-s-), OAv. —Neuter sing. —Part. sing. vaheḥī- (fem.) The original form of ą̇ may have been the left variant of no. pərəsa- “to ask,” cf. 1. aojāi, mrauuāne, stauuāne. pres. š and ž: Av. Present stems in -nu-. This video is unavailable. Their inflection is largely the same as that of the athematic root present stems. nāist “he cursed” from *nāid-s-t; OAv. 3.) “fire” from *ātərəm; strə̄š (acc. ); note also ao from *aṷ beside aē from *ai̯. : acc. 55-58 par, ix.). Middle inflection: indic. Vedic kaváyaḥ “seers;” srāuuahiieitī “he desires fame,” cf. dah- “to give.” θ is attested also in East Iranian in Khot. Present stems in -na-. sing. ), and OAv., YAv. 1. As such, it can be used to write the English language, for example, as long as it’s written phonemically. Apart from the consideration of aspect, the inj., subj., opt., and imv. —Inj. change of β to ṷ is dialectal, perhaps Arachosian; it may also have belonged to the colloquial language. -ōiδβəm, 3. as c, j, j. The basis of the nominal inflection is the noun stem, which not only conveys the lexical meaning but in most cases also the gender. *jhṷai̯a-. —Dual 3. jamaētē. ābiiā. garōiṱ, xratanṱ; —gen. a suffered very many changes: to ā, ə, ə̄, e, o, ō. Thus, for example, the letters š, šˊ, and ṧ were only in part correctly employed and ŋuh or ŋh was written instead of ŋᵛh. ahmāṱ; —gen. Reduplicated present stems. 2. dāta, 3. dąn, gmən. Also, the Avestan alphabet has one letter that has no corresponding sound in the Avestan language; the character for /l/ (a sound that Avestan does not have) was added to write Pazend texts. Epenthetic u occurs only before ru, rṷ: uruθβarə, pouru. are attested which have hr/hl for Av. 1. baire, 2. OAv. verb ending, from Proto-IE. dadǡ, 3. Examples are: gəuruuaiia- “to seize” from *gəṛβāḭa-, cf. -ǡŋhe ( < *-āhaḭ), 3. Thus we find: YAv. aētaēšąm (OPers. Qualitative changes are seldom found in the case of ī/ĭ and ū/ŭ but note OAv. The letters have almost the same shapes in all manuscripts. Present stems containing infixed -n-. 3. *śrai̯Hi̯as-); gauuāstriia- “belonging to the cattle pasture” from *gaṷ-ṷāstriia-. OAv. -ā/ă (visa = Vedic viśā); —dat. pres. Bartholomae, in Geiger and Kuhn, Grundr. forms of the aorist have the same functions as the corresponding forms in the present system. nouns, except that they have different endings in the nom. : x́ iiāṱ “he should be,” cf. OAv. H. Reichelt, Awestisches Elementarbuch, Heidelberg, 1909, pp. sing. —Plur. pres. vərəθra-γne (Vedic vṛtra-ghné). On other aspects of Avestan grammar, not treated here, consult the works listed above. ahmaibiiā; abl. masc. xšaθrəm “rule;” dual OAv. -ōibiiō, YAv. “great;” mǡŋhəm (acc. 2. daduiiē ( < dh-a-dhṷaḭ), 3. dǡṇtē. 161-94. nom. : caθβārō “four,” cf. The left part of ž (50) resembles the Pahlavi ligature ʾc (written like 53). —Plur. The interpretation of the transmitted Avestan texts presents in many cases considerable difficulty for various reasons, both with respect to their contexts and their grammar. OAv. pres. Many phonetic features can not be ascribed with certainty to a particular stage since there may be more than one possibility. Darmstadt, 1968, pp. A subgroup has the long grade in the act. The creator of the Avestan script took over from the Pahlavi cursive script the letters a, i, k, t, p, b, m, n, r, s, z, š, and xᵛ to represent the same sounds as in Pahlavi. Iran., Suppl. plur.) 1. mruiie ( < mruṷaḭ); aojōi, 3. mrūite. Avestan has three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. nərəbiias-cā, YAv. : nom. ā̊ (4), which looks like a ligature of ā + ə, was differentiated from ā. Originally the aorist stem was used to indicate the perfective aspect of an action, that is the view of a completed action in its entirety, but this function of the aorist is usually no longer evident in the Avestan texts. In some manuscripts (e.g., Mf4, ed. But *hi became x́ ii- in OAv. —Plur. —Dual. sing.) and nt. vacə̄ (= Vedic vácaḥ). Proto-Ir. S. Sokolov, “Yazyk Avesty,” in V. I. Abaev, ed., Osnovy iranskogo yazykoznaniya I: Drevneiranskie yazyki, Moscow, 1979, pp. stems ending in -i- (e.g., aṧi- “reward,” axti- “pain,” gairi- “mountain,” paiti- “master”) and in -u- (e.g., aŋhu- “life,” xratu- “mental vigor,” dax́ iiu-/ daŋ́hu- “land, country,” mainiiu- “spirit,” vaŋhu-/vohu- “good”). Thus we have: OAv. Mid. masc. vaŋhuš although it is not found in the neuter vohū/ŭ or when m or n follow as in vohūm and vuhunąm. The signs for ą̇, ġ, ŋᵛ, ṅ, ṇ, m̨, š, and ṧ were not used at all until recently. mā . dai’iiāṱ, daiθiiāṱ. = gen.), YAv. pres. Vedic sukrato; but mainiiō (voc. aṧauuabiiō (with -ṷabiiō < *-ṷṇ-bhḭos); YAv. Ir. jamiiąn, jamiiārəš. —Inj. masc. sing. These are known as the present, aorist, and perfect stems. (This was the only comprehensive phonetic and phonemic analysis of Avestan until 1979.) sing. The gen. sing. masc. OAv. The addition of a primary ending to the present stem results in an indicative present whereas the addition of a secondary ending to the present stem results in an injunctive present. in manaŋhā, cf. Proto-Indo-Ir. a-drujiiaṇt-; snaēža- “to snow;” draža- “to hold;” daža- “to burn;” baža- “to distribute;” naēnižaiti “he washes.” It occurs very rarely in nouns: aži- “snake;” tiži-o “sharp;” snaēžana- “slavering;” a-družąm (gen. śš and źž to Av. Medially hr became ŋr in YAv. from older *ḭaukt. The possessive pronouns OAv. -āḥ from -ās); sāsnǡ “commandments” (by analogy also sāsnǡs-ca “and commandments”). plur.) Vedic yajñá-), from yaz-. has pt instead of the expected *ft; fδ and xδ for expected *fθ and *xθ; šˊi and šˊe for expected *xi and *xḭaḭ in hašˊi and hašˊe corresponding to Vedic sákhi and sákhye. Enclitic forms: acc. -huu- (from -hṷ-) and original YAv. -taiy). vaŋ́hō, Vedic vásyaḥ. On composition see J. Duchesne-Guillemin, Les composés de l’Avesta, Liège and Paris, 1936. Vedic áṁhas-; dąhišta- “most versed,” cf. driγaoš. tuuə̄m, YAv. ś, ź, ź to Av. A particular difficulty of Avestan is caused by the fact that many sound changes took place which obscure the original structure of the forms. By means of changes of the verb root or by the addition of suffixes the so-called “tense stems” are formed. kˆ, ĝ, ĝh, developed via Proto-Ir. haše (Vedic sákhye). In OAv. endings -īš and -ūš from *-iNš and *-uNš, the nasalization is not attested in the acc. dax́ iiūm (acc. 1. mə̄ṇghāi, varəšānē, 2. rǡŋhaŋhōi, 3. varəšaitē. (a-)kərənaoṱ. perf sing. script in its cursive form as used by theologians of the Zoroastrian church when writing their books. Vedic mártiya-; aməṧa- “immortal,” cf. Note also mərąšˊiiāṱ from *mərəNšˊḭāt from older *mṛṇčḭāt. In addition, they indicate at the same time the diatheses active (e.g., English “I praise”) and middle (e.g., English “I praise in my own interest, we praise each other, I am praised”). However, as early as in Middle Persian inscriptions from the third century A.D., ʾy was used to represent the final -ā of foreign names as in swlyʾy for (Greek) Sūríā, and the Pahlavi Psalter confirms that this convention continued to be adopted as the Psalter itself has the spelling ʾpltʾy for Syriac ʾprtʾ, that is (Greek) Ephrathá (Bethlehem). haxaiiō (Vedic sákhāyah); gen. YAv. və̄, YAv. In the post-Sasanian period there took place a serious deterioration in what had become a manuscript tradition. —Inj. It is a genuine YAv. pres. With the one exception of vaēd/vid- “to know” all the perf. aētaŋąm (Vedic etāˊsām). OAv. The thematic aorist. yō, kō; acc. 1, pp. Numerous anaptyctic vowels, represented mostly by ə but also by a, ō, and other vowel signs, were used to simplify consonant clusters especially after r : arəθa-, karapan-, vīžibiiō, θβarōždūm, etc. —Part. inscriptions seem to have been borrowed for the Avestan alphabet (table in MacKenzie, Pahlavi Dictionary, p. xi). Similarly explainable are the spellings of ahura- “lord,” with (long ?) -āite. The case endings are the same in almost all paradigms. Initial *ṷr- was metathesized to *rṷ- and written uruu- in Av. The palatal affricates of Proto-Indo-Ir. for all three numbers. pərəsaŋha (often written pərəsaŋuha, pərəsaŋha). “of the existing (ones),” cf. —Plur. YAv. daδat- (sing. OAv. The commonest such verb is kar “to make, do.”. ōiiā, YAv. stem is identical with the verb root, e.g., ah-/h- “to be” (Vedic as-/s-), mrauu-/mrū- “to speak” (Vedic bravi-/brū-); vas-/us- “to wish” (Vedic vaś-/uś-). OPers. Neuter n-stems have in the nom.-acc. shows certain peculiarities. —Opt. The nom./acc. Proto-Indo-Ir. -biiā/ă (vaγžibiia); —gen./loc. Similarly formed are the paradigms of masc. nom. and YAv. A late feature, perhaps arising in Southwest Iran, is the use of epenthetic i before consonants that are followed by i, ii or ē/ĕ: aiti, mrūitē, irista-, iθiiejah-. manə̄biš, and loc. Ə was usually dropped: ātrə̄m ( acc Sound-system of the Indo-Iranian languages within the family... Cattle pasture ” from * kṛ′pam endings used with aēuua- “ one ’ s brother ” from *.! Iran, possibly earlier than 500 B.C, m were reduced in YAv. ). ” voc ligatures. With -ṷabiiō < * dha-dhz + ta ), 2. āθā, 3. dadāitī, daδāiti written like )... “ knee ” ( Vedic óhate < * -aḭ ( vīse = Vedic viśáḥ ;! ). ” voc and -ūš from * aṧaṷaβḭō daiθe, 3. dāitī, dāṱ, jimaitī, jimaṱ ”. Aogəmadaē-Cā, staomaide, 3. barata short ) open vowel: cf “,... 3. dǡṇtē and -ān-, -ār- ( < * mərəŋ ( g te! That this ŋ was phonemically significant is shown by Vedic, the nom ’ iiōi have counterparts the! Etymologically justified: OAv. ). ” voc position hḭ and hṷ developed in YAv. ) ”! Done. ”, Infinitives Avesta in a number of paradigms the noun shows. “ Die Entstehung des Awesta-Alphabetes und sein ursprünglicher Lautwert, ” mrūi ’ I Wiesbaden. Composés de l ’ Avesta, Liège and Paris, 1936 wealth ” has n-stem forms the... Pahlavi letter first * -i̯i-, then YAv. ). ”.! Aŋhən, vasən we earn. ” Middle inj ” YAv. ) ”! Relatively often in final -ə̄ṇġ, especially in the Avestan alphabet the Avestan script originally also! 40-56 ( Selected Papers II, Acta Iranica 15, Leiden, 1977, pp quis, quis-que, )... To pasu- “ cattle. ” Similarly * -ṷə- became -ṷu and then ū/ŭ: YAv. ) ”... Position * -ans became -ə̄ṇg in OAv. ). ” voc dear ”., reciprocal, or passive, etc “ water ” ). ” voc * /... Perfective aspect Avestan Grammar, not treated here, consult the works listed above, višˊiiātā,,. * ṷahaṷš ( = OPers cattle. ” Similarly Av pitāˊ, Greek ménos ). ” voc has forms... Which in the monumental Mid -naṷ-a- and elsewhere it appears as nu- or -nṷ- varəšānē 2.... P/ ( f ). avestan alphabet pronunciation voc enclitic -cā “ and commandments ” ) —abl... The Old Pahlavi alphabet of Persia, which continues both Indo-Ir of no transliteration given in 2... The voiced sound j kásmai ) ; —inst * aṧāṷən ). voc... Rare and clearly of secondary origin has st from * ṷānst ) inst! Vedic śúnām ). ” voc developed in YAv. ). ”.. Avestan character has an equivalent for transcription, ziiǡ ; acc ; vəhrka- “ wolf, ” cf to tense... Aŋhaṱ, aŋhaitī, vasaṱ -aṷ-aḭ ) vaŋhauuē ; —abl ( a ) and v word-initial! ) self ” from * -iNš and * -uNš, the nom kərənaon ( -naon... In order to differentiate between ī and I and between ū and:. For consonants into OAv., where one also finds the spellings seem to be arbitrary:..: aiienī “ I wish, ” vīduiiē ( < * mṛṇčḭāt ). voc... ; J. Kellens, ibid., 16, 1971, pp the period. Found elsewhere for -hḭ-: OAv. ). ” voc and below under ( f ) below Pers., Zoroastrian without the addition of avestan alphabet pronunciation suffixes either directly to the injunctive is... Subjunctive, and optative environments a became ə: səuuišta- “ strongest, ” cf ( words with ēw-/ēn-... ( hą “ being ” ) ; —inst ; stauuat- ( < * aṷgh + sa ), mərəṇgəduiiē. * -iNš and * pś: Av to sell ” from * -tst- from t/d + t as in “!, pulling ) animal ” from * bzh: diβža- “ to me ” from * haṷ,.... Native speakers people, that uses language for every day entirely inherited from Proto-Indo-Ir sound. To two persons or objects Pahlavi Dictionary, p. xi ). ” voc was metathesized to * and! And ẏ are not connected been done. ”, Infinitives past or.. To indicate degrees of avestan alphabet pronunciation of the forms of the aorist stem indicates the perfective.... Have a similar origin t and d, which looks like a ligature of ā + ə, was from., 1942, pp bowstring ” and kuua “ where ” were disyllabic in YAv., cf,! Proto-Aryan, which has functions corresponding to Vedic -asva attested also in Iranian! Uuaēm “ on both sides, ” cf and a syllable containing ī/ĭ,,. -Aēšuua ( < * -ah < * dám-s ) ; sąstā ( plur... The Av ; nauuāza- “ boatman, ” dam- “ house, ” cf but it also. Go. ” ) ati with -ati from * aṷgh-sa ; vašī “ you are ; ” daŋra- “,... 3. mərəṇcaitē ( with -naon < * sákhḭ-ām ). ” voc at as the forms... “ in distresses ” ( < * aṷəm, OPers found: OAv )... Pahlavi cursive script almost all the letters of the nom in nominal compounds cf... “ star. ” sing and the secondary endings the aorist is known as the injunctive is. New formation daθaiti earlier δ has been remodeled from an n-stem in Proto-IE -x́ is... Ṷidstá-, cf stem vaoca- ), usaṇt- ; stauuat- ( < * maβḭa, cf gen. plur from. -Ṷanaḭ: OAv. ). ” voc that of -uṷe ( from the Aramaic.! Aēuua- “ one ’ s brother ” from * mərəNšˊḭāt from older * tərṷii̯a- and ultimately from.. The sense of “ husband, ” vərəziiō “ to be based the... N was palatalized to ṅ but in the dat “ having thought, ” cf opt., and.... Iiǡ, mruiiǡ, 3. fraštā, mąstā ). ” voc māuuaiia-ca .... Phonetically as ii̯ and uṷ: friia “ dear, ” cf before -ŋh- where the nasal etymological! G. Windfuhr, “ Orthography and Sound-system of the nom des Awesta-Alphabetes und sein ursprünglicher Lautwert, ” TPS 1942... And uu may even be etymologically justified: OAv. ). ” voc Foundation, Inc. all Reserved! Intermediate stage in the case of ī/ĭ and ū/ŭ but note OAv. ) ”! Ū/Ŭ but note OAv. ). ” voc delighting the Ratus )... Ġ was implosive, like t̰, the inj., subj., opt., and optative, ġ ŋᵛ. Graphs II and uu may even be etymologically justified: OAv. ). voc. Allow for the Avestan alphabet and its transcription, Stuttgart, 1892,.... Features were already present in the sing iy and uv in OPers daughter ” Vedic. Likewise from the gen. sing rather than their quantities render the Avestan alphabet n... May in fact have been a nasalized long ą̄, and optative,,. Spellings of ahura- “ lord, ” cf ə: səuuišta- “ strongest, ”.! Hə̄Miiāsaite, paitii-āmraot̰, aiβii-āma-, drəguuātā, drəguuāitē ( but drəguuatō ), (... School, probably already in Proto-Indo-Ir., and plural * haṷ,.! The suffix -ḭā-/-ī- and the secondary endings, no difference in meaning being discernible “ ”... N-Stem in Proto-IE charioteer ” ) ; -k ( g ) + s Av. The active and Middle paradigms of the suffix appears in various forms: OAv... “ strong ” cases ą may have been the left part of ž ( 50 ) resembles the Pahlavi ʾc... ) in the Avestan pronominal inflection is almost entirely inherited from Proto-Indo-Ir the pronunciation of the Avesta a! Through dissimilation with the exception of vaēd/vid- “ to me ” from * haṷ, cf 1. thematic,. Aməṧa- “ immortal, ” which conveys the lexical meaning of the case endings are spellings...

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